June 18, 2024

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SSDs also referred to as solid-state drives, are storage drives that save persistent data on solid-state flash memory. A solid-state drive (SSD) is different from a hard disk drive (HDD). Solid-state drives are generally faster and optimally provide better performance than old-school hard disk drives, but not all SSDs are the same. They come in different shapes and sizes, have different maximum speeds, and different prices.

SSDs can be differentiated by their form factors and the type of interface employed. Here’s the thing; The line that separates the distinctions between form factors, interfaces, and protocols, as well as the linkages between these three concepts, seems to be blurred, giving room to widespread misunderstanding of these concepts. The bulk of technical terms doesn’t help you either, as not everyone has expert knowledge of these things. Worry not; this piece will help you understand this misunderstood concept that surrounds SSDs and will ultimately help answer your question about the best SSD you can get. 

What You Should Know About M.2

NVMe vs. M.2 vs. SATA SSD - What is the best? nvme
Image: David290(Wikipedia)

M.2 is another term commonly used in the solid-state drive (SSD) industry, and there may be slight confusion about what it is. Here’s the gist, M.2 is an SSD form factor. A form factor defines the physical features of an SSD in size, shape, and type of connector in use. The M.2 form factor is the most recent and smallest available SSD form factor. Also, the M.2 is widely acclaimed as the Next Generation Form Factor (NGFF). The M.2 standard, based on the mSATA (Mini-SATA) specification, was developed to make the most efficient use of printed circuit boards (PCBs) to reduce the amount of space it takes up once installed.

The same way M.2 is a form factor is the same way a 2.5-inch SSD is a form factor. Here’s an explanation; SATA SSDs are offered in two different form factors: the more common and larger 2.5-inch form factor and the more compact M.2 form factor. Thus, you can have the M.2 SATA SSD because it makes use of the M.2 form factor.  The 2.5-inch form size is used by the vast majority of current solid-state drives (SSDs). However, M.2 solid-state drives are used in ultrathin laptops, tablets, etc. So basically, a solid-state drive (SSD) that utilizes the M.2 form factor is known as an M.2 SSD. M.2 solid-state drives are not connected to the motherboard by using cables; rather, they are connected to the motherboard by using an M.2 connection socket that they are directly plugged into. 

M.2 is even smaller than the tiny Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (mSATA). The increase in utility of personal computers for things such as gaming, video editing, and 3D animation makes the M.2 SSD a timely innovation. M.2 is also compatible with a wide range of computer protocols and applications, including SATA and PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express).

What You Should Know About SATA

SATA can also be described as a connectivity interface. The initial kind of connection or generation that solid-state drives employ is known as the Serial Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA). The preceding interface was employed widely in storage devices such as HDDs (Hard Disk Drives) and SSDs (Solid State Drives). It was designed to facilitate read/write activities between a storage drive and a personal computer. To put it another way, it facilitates the connection between the storage device you use and the motherboard.

SATA is so popular because it can reach speeds of up to 600 MB/s, and its size is suitable for most notebooks and personal computers. SATA makes use of AHCI, which stands for Advanced Host Controller Interface, which offers lower performance when compared with other communication protocols. AHCI can only make use of 1 command queue and can only send 32 commands per queue;  its latency lies around 6 microseconds, and IOPs can reach up to 100K. The more compact version of SATA is known as mini-SATA, and it is also available (mSATA). Here’s a twist, even while SATA has the slowest data transfer rate of all the many types of SSDs, it is still up to five times faster than HDDs. 

What You Should Know About NVMe 

Similar to SATA, the NVMe (Non-Volatile Memory Express) is an interface for host controllers and a storage protocol that was developed to increase the pace at which data can be transferred between client and enterprise systems and SSDs using a computer’s high-speed PCIe bus. Just like SATA works with AHCI, NVMe works with PCIe – (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express). This PCIe is an interface standard that is used to connect any number of components to a host. NVMe PCIe is an expansion of PCIe. PCIe is superior to SATA in terms of storage because it is the interface that offers the highest bandwidth. 

NVMe is the communication protocol that controls how a PCIe solid-state drive (SSD) connects to a host. NVMe was developed specifically for flash technology, as opposed to AHCI, which was designed for traditional storage media. As a result, NVMe demonstrates superior performance when compared to AHCI. In comparison to AHCI, NVMe can communicate directly with the central processing unit (CPU), whereas AHCI must first go through the SATA controller. This is one of the reasons why NVMe is superior to AHCI. NVMe holds up to 64K queues and may send up to 64K requests per queue. 

An NVMe solid-state drive can be connected using a PCIe bus, as well as M.2 and U.2 interfaces. When coupled to these connections, the NVMe protocol offers shorter latency as well as higher IOPS (input/output operations per second) while simultaneously reducing the amount of power that is consumed. Because the NVMe protocol is also compatible with flash memory, even external or portable NVMe solid-state drives (SSDs) will perform at the same high level of speed as internally attached NVMe SSDs.

To finish off, NVMe is the new best thing. It is a storage connection standard that replaces the slower SATA bus that is utilized by regular drives with the much faster PCI Express bus in order to communicate with the central processing unit (CPU) of your computer. NVMe supports transfer parallelization, deep queuing, and system interrupts, in addition to providing exponential jumps in the highest transfer speeds that may be achieved. NVMe has become the new industry standard for high-end consumer and business storage systems. 


M.2 SSD 

  • It is a form factor
  • The M.2 has two major interface types: 1) SATA and 2) NVMe
  • Storage capacity: It has space capacity ranging from 250GB to as high as 1TB and more.
  • Speed: 1) for M.2 SATA SSD, its speed is up to 550mb/s. 

2) For the M.2 NVMe SSD, its speed can range from 3500mb/s up to 7000mb/s.

  • Size: it takes very little space in the computer build.


  • It is a type of interface
  • Form factors: it comes in M.2 and the 2.5inch / standard.
  • Storage capacity: it has storage capacities ranging from 250GB to 1TB and even higher capacities.
  • Speed: up to 550mb/s


  • It is a type of interface
  • Form factors: it comes in M.2, U.2, and PCIe cards.
  • Storage capacity: ranges from 250GB to over 1TB and more storage capacity.
  • Speed: up to 3500 mb/s for PCIe Gen 3 and up to 7500 mb/s for PCIe Gen 4


When every factor is taken into account, it is clear to see that making comparisons between M.2, SATA, and NVMe is entirely valid. It is important to remember that each of these names refers to a unique component of the SSD design and that you should only compare them with their direct equivalents. True compatibility lies in selecting the appropriate combination of form factor, interface, and communication protocol for the system. So instead of doing a three-way face-off, you would rather notice a comparison based on the difference between form factors and interfaces.

SATA M.2 vs. SATA 2.5-Inch/Standard

Here, the prevailing factors for comparison would be speed and size. The theoretical max speed for a 2.5-inch SATA SSD is 600 mb/s, but in most real-world scenarios, this ends up being just about 500 to 550 mb/s. If an M.2 SSD is using SATA bandwidth, the same speed limitations still apply, so there isn’t any different.

However, the major difference would be that the drive tends to be much smaller. And yes, the information that might concern you the most is the price. They cost about the same price. All in all, an M.2 SSD will almost always be the better choice. 

M.2 NVMe vs. M.2 SATA

An M.2 NVMe and an M.2 SATA drive will look identical on the surface level, but trust me, there is a wide gap. Modern NVMe drives are made to utilize PCI Express Gen 3 bandwidth and even Gen 4 PCIe. This exceeds SATA bandwidth in terms of speed by a long distance.  Your SATA SSD– M.2 or not– will cap out below 600 mb/s.Your NVMe SSD, meanwhile, can achieve speeds as high as 3.5 gb/s. That’s multiple times faster than even the best SATA SSD. Although there is a noticeable price difference, there is also a noticeable difference in performance.


There are a lot of terms and words that you might not fully understand on an expert level as regards SSDs. However, the important thing you must have noticed is that for SSDs, we have the form factor and the interface. NVMe is not a form factor; instead, it is a connectivity standard in the same vein as SATA. Unlike M.2, on the other hand, is a form factor that entails size, shape, and the type of connector used. The confusing factor is that M.2 is largely associated with NVMe, and it seems they can be used interchangeably. That’s far from the truth.

The M.2 is an upgrade on the 2.5inch standard SSD, and NVMe is a massive upgrade on SATA. 

Frequently asked questions

Are all M.2 drivers NVMe?

Well, the answer is no. Not all M.2 slots support NVMe. Some support only SATA, some support NVMe, and others support either. So the common choice is to go with two slots but woven at that, it is reasonable for you to make adequate verifications that yours can accommodate an NVMe. 

What do you consider when you want to choose your SSD?

In all honesty, the choice of SSD to get depends on you. You would majorly be considering your budget and the type and bulk of work you need your PC to be doing. The M.2 SATA is an improvement of SATA, although they seem to have similar processing output and are within the same price range. Choosing an upgrade of a product with the same price is a well-thought-out plan.

For NVMe and SATA battle, it’s a clear winner – NVMe. But here comes the twist, your budget. There is a significant price difference when you look at the SATA and NVMe SSD. This doesn’t make the SATA or SATA M.2 SSD less effective as it would serve a vast majority of PC users. If, however, the bulk load of the work you do on your PC is huge or you’re looking for SSDs that can complement the workload of enterprises or corporations, then going for the NVMe is your best bet for faster results.

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